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    Umbilical cord prolapse

    A plan for an ob emergency

     

    References

    1. Kahana B, Sheiner E, Levy A, et al. Umbilical cord prolapse and perinatal outcomes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004;84:127–132.

    2. Lin MG. Umbilical cord prolapse. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2006;61:269–277.

    3. Koonings PP, Paul RH, Campbell K. Umbilical cord prolapse. A contemporary look. J Reprod Med. 1990;35:690–692.

    4. Boyle JJ, Katz VL. Umbilical cord prolapse in current obstetric practice. J Reprod Med. 2005;50:303–306.

    5. Murphy DJ, MacKenzie IZ. The mortality and morbidity associated with umbilical cord prolapse. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995;102:826–830.

    6. Usta IM, Mercer BM, Sibai BM. Current obstetrical practice and umbilical cord prolapse. Am J Perinatol. 1999;16:479–484.

    7. Holbrook BD, Phelan ST. Umbilical cord prolapse. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2013;40:1–14.

    8. Critchlow CW, Leet TL, Benedetti TJ, Daling JR. Risk factors and infant outcomes associated with umbilical cord prolapse: a population-based case-control study among births in Washington State. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994;170:613–618.

    9. Katz Z, Lancet M, Borenstein R. Management of labor with umbilical cord prolapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982;142:239–241.

    10. Vago T. Prolapse of the umbilical cord: a method of management. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1970;107:967–969.

    11. Caspi E, Lotan Y, Schrever Pl. Prolapse of the cord: reduction of perinatal mortality by bladder instillation and cesarean section. Isr J Med Sci. 1983;19:541–545.

    12. Bord I, Gemer O, Anteby EY, Shenhav S. The value of bladder filling in addition to manual elevation of presenting fetal part in cases of cord prolapse. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;283:989–991.

    13. Barrett JM. Funic reduction for the management of umbilical cord prolapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;165:654–657.

    14. Leong A, Rao J, Opie G, Dobson P. Fetal survival after conservative management of cord prolapse for three weeks. BJOG. 2004;111:1476–1477.

    15. Siassakos D, Hasafa Z, Sibanda T, et al. Retrospective cohort study of diagnosis-delivery interval with umbilical cord prolapse: the effect of team training. BJOG. 2009;116:1089–1096.

    Sharon T. Phelan, MD
    Dr. Phelan is a Professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
    Bradley D. Holbrook, MD
    Dr. Holbrook is a senior resident in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, ...

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