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    Recurrent pregnancy loss

     

    14. Crotti L, Tester DJ, White WM, et al. Long QT syndrome-associated mutations in intrauterine fetal death. JAMA. 2013;309(14):1473-1482.

    15. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Practice Bulletin No. 138: Inherited thrombophilia in pregnancy. 2013.

    16.Dizon-Townson D, Miller C, Sibai B, et al.: The relationship of the factor V Leiden mutation and pregnancy outcomes for mother and fetus. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:517-524.

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    18. Miyakis S, Lockshin MD, Atsumi T, et al. International consensus statement on an update of the classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4(2):295-306.

    19.Franklin RD, Kutteh WH: Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) and recurrent pregnancy loss: treating a unique APA positive population. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(11):2981-2985.

    20.Mak A, Cheung MW, Cheak AA, et al. Combination of heparin and aspirin is superior to aspirin alone in enhancing live births in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and positive anti-phospholipid antibodies: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and meta-regression. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:281-288.

    21. Wong LF, Porter TF, de Jesus GR. Recurrent early pregnancy loss and antiphospholipid antibodies: where do we stand? Lupus. 2014;23:1226-1228.

    22.Peyvandi F, Bidlingmaier C, Garagiola I: Management of pregnancy and delivery with inherited bleeding disorders. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011;16:311-317.

    23.Devi Wold AS, Pham N, Arici A. Anatomic factors in recurrent pregnancy loss. Semin Reprod Med. 2006;24:25-32.

    24.Sanders B: Uterine factors and infertility. J Reprod Med. 2006;51:169-176.

    25. Fukui A, Kwak-Kim J, Ntrivalas E, et al. Intracellular cytokine expression of peripheral blood natural killer cell subsets in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions and implantation failures. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:157-165.

    26.Stephenson MD, Kutteh WH, Purkiss S, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin and idiopathic secondary recurrent miscarriage: a multicentered randomized placebo-controlled trial. Hum Reprod. 2010;25(9):2203-2209.

    27.Boyd TK, Redline RW. Chronic histiocytic intervillositis: a placental lesion associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Hum Pathol. 2003;31(11):1389-1396.

    28. Jindal P, Regan L Fourkala EO, et al. Placental pathology of recurrent spontaneous abortion: the role of histopathological examination of products of conception in routine clinical practice: a mini review. Hum Reprod Update. 2007;22(2):313-316.

    29.Reid SM, Middleton P, Cossich MC et al. Interventions for clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(7).

    30. Haas DM, Ramsey PS. Progestogen for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;10:CD003511.

    31.Coomarasamy A, Williams H, Truchanowicz E, et al. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(22):2141-2148.

    32. Roberts CP, Murphy AA: Endocrinopathies associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Semin Reprod Med. 2000;18(4):357-362.

    33.Cocksedge KA, Li TC, Saravelos SH et al. A reappraisal of the role of polycystic ovary syndrome in recurrent miscarriage. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17(1):151-160.

    34.Legro RS, Barnhart HX, Schlaff WD et al. Clomiphene, metformin, or both for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:551-566.

    35.Lashen H, Fear K, Sturdee DW: Obesity is associated with increased risk of first trimes ter and recurrent miscarriage: matched case-control study. Hum Reprod. 2004;19(7):1644-1646.

    36.Boots C, Stephenson MD. Does obesity increase the risk of miscarriage in spontaneous conception: a systematic review. Semin Reprod Med. 2011;29(6):507-513.

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    39.Schleussner E, Kamin G, Seliger G, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparin for women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss: a multicenter trial with a minimization randomization scheme. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162(9):601-609.

     

     

     

    Charles J. Lockwood, MD, MHCM
    Dr. Lockwood, Editor-in-Chief, is Dean of the Morsani College of Medicine and Senior Vice President of USF Health, University of South ...

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